This August LA indie rock outfit Silversun Pickups delivered the Romney campaign a cease and desist order re: their song “Panic Switch.” Much to the chagrin of the Pickups, Mitt and Co. were fond of using the song’s chugging guitars and message of generalized anxiety to pump up crowds at GOP rallies. This little legal dust up makes the band the latest in a long string of musicians tsk-tsking Republican campaigns for co-opting their work. The Romney campaign ran into a similar problem earlier this election cycle over the use of K’naan’s song “Wavin’ Flag” and in 2008 Heart very publicly tore into Sarah Palin for her use of “Barracuda” to chum the waters at her campaign events.
Clearly, the GOP has some trouble nailing down the perfect soundtrack for their political ambitions — after all, even the most gun-ho rightie can’t solely listen to Ted Nugent on repeat. Luckily, in this case the right can turn to the same people they always turn to when they need a hand: giant multinational corporations. I am, of course, speaking of the Exxon Singers.
You’re forgiven if you’ve never heard of these pioneers in the world of industrial shmaltz-pop. The Exxon Singers never reached the Billboard charts and even the most thorough googling only turns of a brief mention on WFMU’s wonderful Beware of the Blog. However, the group’s album The Spirit of Achievement was surely a hit around Exxon headquarters circa 1976. And with songs like “America’s Way,” how could it not be?
Produced to entertain, inform, and mildly indoctrinate employees at the 1976 Exxon Convention, The Spirit of Achievement is something of a pro-corporate conservative manifesto set to music. As you can guess, it’s not a project steeped in subtlety. Tracks like “America’s Way” gives a full-throated endorsement of liaise-faire economics with lines like “America’s way, the free enterprise way / that’s what got us here today.” Backed by a triumphant slice of sunshine pop, the Singers deliver these hummable slogans with a straight-froward sincerity. It’s the same constructed wholesomeness you find in that group of crazy kids who, just five years earlier, stood atop a hill and declared their intention to buy the world a Coke.
The rest of the album follows much the same formula, matching up Exxon’s political agenda to show tune-quality cuts that sound hokey and dated even by mid-70s standards. The message ricochets between unobjectionable and vague soundbites (the freedom to use, the choice to choose/ that’s what got us where we are today), to unvarnished policy arguments. On the bubbly hit “Efficiency” the Singers really spell it out:
Reasonable government guidelines, well that’s okay
We don’t mind if the government has its say
But too much control, well that just gets in the way
It may be a little moderate for today’s Tea Party crowd, but in this case, job-creators can’t be choosers.
Writing for Cabinet magazine, record collector Jonathan Ward tracks the history and evolution of these corporate music catalogs. His detailed chronology of the genre draws parallels between the genre’s progression and the changing roll of industry in public policy. What begins in the 1940s as a whimsical means to “bolster worker’s confidence in their company’s future,” eventually transforms by the late 70s into vessels of “hubristic corporate fantasies.”
Maybe for the next Republican canditate’s rally, whichever bowtied intern they have picking the music should skip over his mainstream record collection and reach right for Coca-Cola’s 1979 opus to deregulation “That Big Bottling Plant Up in the Sky,” which proudly declares:
In that big bottling plant up in the sky
There’s no FTC and there’s no EPA
No FDA, to spoil your day!
The novelty song “My Name is Potato” gives no clue that Rita Pavone was really famous – once so famous that she recorded with Barbara Streisand, played Carnegie Hall, and was a guest on the Ed Sullivan show. Rumor even has it that Elvis Presley painted her portrait.
Like many internet finds, the song seems to leap out of nowhere, an unceremonious musical mugging (see the Delorean on Ivor Cutler’s “I’m Happy”), shaking up the orderly playlist like the musical equivalent of the fat kid who empties all the water out of the swimming pool. True to the blitzkrieg tactics of the novelty song, it grabs our attention by cranking up the volume and switching a register for the chorus. The chorus, by the way, consists of the words “my name is potato” yelled repeatedly at increasing levels of volume. The song’s music video has Rita conversing with a cartoon potato, who insists “I’m an American Potato,” as he ricochets around shooting guns – all the while wearing a cowboy hat. Is Rita making a crude point about Americans being uncultured and violent? To the casual listener, with no means of translating this relic of Italian pop, nothing is clear.
Most of Rita’s songs are not like “My Name is Potato.” Some of the most popular ones are torch ballads utilizing her powerful ear-splitting range, her voice capable of leading orchestras. She scored massive hits with songs like “Cuore,” and when you hear her, you’re hearing the soul of teen angst beamed back from the Italy of the 60s. A slideshow of Pavone’s career would flicker with images of an affectingly young Rita in doll-like dresses with short boyish hair; or winning a talent contest which rocketed her to stardom and later landed her up (controversially) marrying her talent scout; or as a teen icon in Spain, making a series of Lindsey Lohan type teen movies.
By the time “My Name is Potato” was released, Rita had already had her shot at pop dominance and was aiming various silly songs at the children’s novelty market while mostly flopping in the charts. What is amazing is how much energy she still put into these insane songs. Behind the snark and fun of some internet blogs that have picked up “My Name is Potato” is a person reacting strongly and even impressed by this Trojan horse of a novelty song, out of which tumbles the conquering Rita. Future students of Pavone studies may be able to read into the deeper significance of this track by, for example, translating the Italian, but for now it’s interesting enough that a career like Rita passed us by in the English speaking world, leaving a hit and run moment like “My Name is Potato.”
They Might Be Giants always seemed to have it backwards. In their late 40s and early 50s the Johns (Flansburgh and Linell) revitalized a career by writing fun yet informative children’s music while apparently missing all of the middle-aged bitterness you got from the music they were making when they were in their 20s. But as silly as some of the songs on an album like Lincoln are, there’s a lot going on under the surface of cheery hooks.
Take “Where Your Eyes Don’t Go,” a song which imagines a scarecrow that mocks every unconscious thought behind your back, and describes the horrible aspects of ourselves that we’ll never understand or even be aware of. “Ana Ng,” the album’s hit song, laments how we will never meet the perfect person for us due to the overwhelming size of the world. The endlessly repeated “Ana Ng and I are getting old…” chorus deserves its broken record treatment at the end. You look past the catchiness and realize how horrible of a thought it presents.
But what makes Lincoln (named, not for the president, but for the small Massachusetts town the duo grew up in) kind of a magical record is how all this unpleasant shit gets presented with witty humor and gentle sadness. “Ana Ng” takes that horrible idea, one that countless people have expressed before, and softens the edges with over the top drama (shooting his hometown on a globe, leaving Ana’s town in the exit wound) and the band’s signature goofiness (after so many mentions of a broken record, the end works like the punch line to a great joke). It’s a balancing act that deserves more credit than the band’s often given, but nowhere can you hear it more than on “They’ll Need a Crane.”
“They’ll Need a Crane” offers a glimpse into a painfully universal relationship between the cartoonishly named Gal and Lad (har har see what they did there). One of them can’t be happy without the others love, but still says and does things that cause their partner pain. Each contradictory, yet understandable, verse slides effortlessly into the chorus’ conclusion: that it’ll take a crane to break up their relationship, and another one to put it back together. It’s all sung to the best melody on the album. Every piece fits together perfectly to create one of the sweetest and saddest songs the band ever wrote. Above all, it’s representative of a beautifully melancholy whole. Mel Brooks has a quote I’ve always liked, “tragedy is when you cut your finger, comedy is when you fall through an open sewer and die.” Lincoln is a great album that takes a bit from both.
Hip-hop bloggers tend to throw around the term “psych rap” a lot these days, and rightfully so, because it definitely applies to many of the more popular independent records coming out right now. However, I’m starting to get the impression that when the average listener hears the term he immediately thinks “songs about popping molly,” which is a shame because, to my ears at least, psych rap and psychedelic music in general are about much more than simply getting high and touching people. Psychedelia is about the expansion of consciousness via the alteration of perception, a change that can occur in a myriad of ways, and while drugs can play a big part in the experience, they are supposed to be more of a means than an end.
Along with a few other monumental releases like Edan’s Beauty and the Beat and Aesop Rock’s Bazooka Tooth, LoDeck and Omega One’s Postcards from the Third Rock stands as one of psych rap’s landmark releases. An aptly titled concept album, it takes listeners on a vacation of the mind while exploring in great depth all the themes we tend to associate with psychedelics, asking us what is real, how do we perceive time and space, where is the line between genius and insanity, and how does the ego inform our senses of identity, individuality, and community.
The wigged man sitting before you listens intently, his jaw gradually dropping to his lace jabot as you explain: “The rapper recites rhythmic poetry over musical pieces often comprised of looped samples and drum breaks.”
“But samples of vhat and vhat is a drum break?” he demands.
“Of records,” you say, forgetting that for all his musical talents, the man in the frocked coat has never heard an audio recording in his entire life, nor will he. For him, the concept does not exist.
“And you call this music?! Absurd!”
That’s what I imagine when I hear “This is as good as back in the day is/ Absurd like a rap song described to Amadeus.” This couplet from “A Day in the Triangle,” perhaps more than any other rhyme on the whole album, forever remains fresh in my mind. From a technical perspective it’s very basic — a two-syllable rhyme with a couple similes, a set-up, and a punch line. But once we really process what LoDeck is saying, a whole world of interpretations begins to emerge. On the surface, he’s literally saying this day in the Bermuda triangle is ridiculous. Yet on a deeper level, by alluding to a breakdown in the fabric of time, he prompts the listener to question the very notion of time itself, more specifically how our perception of it affects our judgment. If we connect the two lines, what’s absurd could be the very premise of the set-up. “As good as back in the day is absurd.” Calling into question the positive connotation normally associated with the phrase “back in the day” raises a valid point and one that is especially relevant to hip-hop fans. Isn’t it somewhat absurd to romanticize a bygone era in its entirety? It’s not like every rap single from 1979 is amazing.
There is an irony here though, in that the couplet itself, were it not for LoDeck’s Russian accent and gravelly delivery, might not sound so out of place in an early ’80s rap tune. As a matter of fact, there are at least one or two records from that era that juxtapose hip-hop and classical music. Perhaps one of them inspired this line… or maybe it was just the sherm and shrooms. Either way, this type of imaginative thinking is exactly what listening attentively to Postcards from the Third Rock encourages. From the metaphysical meanderings of “On a Path” and “Wipe Out Zone” to the lyrically evolved posse cuts “Nice Kids” and “Titanium,” there is not one track on here that fails to get heads nodding and minds working.
The challenge of simultaneously preserving rap music’s traditions and advancing the art form is an idea that comes up continually throughout the album. LoDeck kicks off his second verse of the title track with a dedication, “I’ma send this one out to pioneers who shaped up my ideas/ writers, MCs, engineers, the placeholders,” while the next song, “No Rims,” bluntly conveys the Bensonhurst-based MC’s rejection of tired clichés, with lines like “Bunch of suckers thought they could bluff they way/ to a castle full of gold relaxing with a centerfold/ kicking that embarrassingly old one-two” and “Who the hell could stand that braggadocios/ stomach that stank flow for the length of a show?” The quest to find one’s own place, both in a given subculture and in the world at large, is further explored in the tragic yet triumphant, stranger-than-fiction parable that is “Understand U.”
Tellingly, the artists’ refusal to conform to prevalent industry standards was likely one of the major factors that prevented this album from reaching a larger audience. 2008 came toward the end of a period during which very few progressive hip-hop records were able to make waves in America, so even though the album was critically praised for its cohesiveness by Cool’eh Magazine and given a phenomenal 9.8 rating by IGN, other review sites were less than enthused. HIPHOP DX, for example, dismissed it as “an acquired taste that some may never acquire.” In the end, Postcards from the Third Rock probably did more to advance the genre than it did the careers of LoDeck and Omega One — possibly their intention from the start. One is forced to wonder if the album would’ve been as widely ignored had it dropped in 2012, now that “psych rap” is all the rage. I sincerely doubt it.
For most noise musicians, there’s an enemy always lurking in the shadows, a real and present threat. Not that there aren’t recordings of people making a godawfully good racket with digital processes, it’s just that, for the vast majority, you’re cheating when you pull out a computer.
Most people within the finer limits of noise prefer to build their own contact mics, circuit bend their garage bought toys, and construct their own synths with their own hands. It’s almost like a badge of honor within the scene. Yet, I can’t help to think it’s somehow odd that one of the biggest and brashest statements to come out of the harsh scene was made by punching 0s and 1s.
A typhoonic nightmare of granulated sine waves that seem to last for days, Sheer Hellish Miasma (#35 on our Favorite 100 Albums of 2000-2009 list) is one of Kevin Drumm’s finer moments – even though most of his output is either “great” or “brilliant.” The record displays a kind of maximal minimalism that isn’t far from the work of Glenn Branca or Sunn O))) in terms of impact, yet it’s a sound all it’s own, something that can’t be said about your average noise record. There are moments of sample degradation that collide with microphone feedback where you’re not really sure if he’s making it all with a module or a guitar (although it seems he employed the latter for SHM) yet most of the time, Drumm doesn’t bring out harsh frequencies to submit your auditory sense. In fact, most of the album feels like very very heavy drone, a gigantic mass that encloses you instead of an attack of killer bees.
While the sounds are quite impressive and a huge draw for the curious listener looking for a harsh ol’ time, Kevin Drumm’s real talent comes from other, far more elemental places. “The Inferno” – the album’s unquestionable centerpiece – has its elements and repetitions placed in such a way that every second counts, and when the sound changes dramatically to reveal a brighter, midrange mass, its monstrous in its impact.
Arrangement-wise, Sheer Hellish Miasma sounds like The Rite of Spring – all insistence, force and beauty – made with traditional instruments or notes. And, like Stravinsky’s grand opus, what carries this amazing composition is the emotion projected by it which also propels its pace. Such a display of emotion has been, historically, hard to achieve with electronic music – let alone noise – but Drumm made an album that sounds like cyborgs having angry tantric sex, enclosing feelings of ecstasy like little else out there.
The 1970s are often referred to as the heyday of avant-garde jazz and improvised music in Europe, especially in England. Festival and concert performances were frequent and, in the early years, even major labels got in on the action. Part of that had to do with the potential appeal of this music to audiences seeking psychedelic and progressive sounds. For example, there was no obvious indication that the People Band LP on Transatlantic (1968) was a balls-to-the-wall free jazz album, produced as it was by none other than Charlie Watts. Cross-pollination between the worlds of art rock and improvised music wasn’t that uncommon, either – saxophonist and composer Elton Dean (1945-2006) worked with the Soft Machine from late 1969 into 1972, appearing on their albums Third, Fourth, and Five (all released on CBS) as well as countless live recordings that have surfaced over the years. He lent an acrid tone and loquacious approach to a band that, as they evolved, narrowly walked the line between clinical reserve and rugged expressiveness, and his presence certainly pushed the band to extraordinary heights. Dean was recruited, alongside trumpeter Marc Charig and saxophonist Lyn Dobson (who only lasted a short time), from the sextet of pianist-composer Keith Tippett (who would briefly join King Crimson). A look at Tippett’s first LP You are Here, I am There (Polydor, 1970) shows the ensemble as young, hip and Beatle-coiffed – an image concomitant with Modish UK counterculture.
By the early-to-mid 70s, creative music was once again an underground phenomenon in Europe, with most major labels pulling out and musicians self-financing their work (though festivals and the media were still quite forward-leaning). Much as in the US, artist-run labels sprouted up to offer musicians a chance to document their processes on wax. Expatriate South African bassist Harry Miller (1941-1983) and his wife Hazel started Ogun Records to document the British modern jazz scene during the decade, drawing significantly from the exiled South African community surrounding pianist Chris McGregor. Recalling the lush landscapes of Tippett’s work as well as the exuberant and freewheeling suites of McGregor’s Brotherhood of Breath (two of the saxophonist’s employers), Dean formed Ninesense in 1975. The personnel included Miller, Tippett, Charig, drummer Louis Moholo, trombonists Nick Evans and Radu Malfatti (Switzerland), tenor saxophonist Alan Skidmore, and flugelhornist Harry Beckett. Ninesense released two LPs on Ogun, Oh! For the Edge and Happy Daze, and toured extensively through the latter half of the 70s. This fertile period has given us the recently unearthed The 100 Club Concert 1979 (Reel Recordings).
Unlike the many bootleg labels that present this music in less-than-quality format, Reel Recordings has sought to bring rare performances to light both legally and in good to excellent sound. This particular Ninesense set (two discs worth) is culled from two cassettes made by Italian superfan Riccardo Bergerone with the musicians’ approval. And while the sound is a bit raw (the piano is a bit distant), the vast emotional and conceptual canvas of Dean and Ninesense are clearly on display. Miller and Moholo are an incredibly well-synced team, swirling and ebbing in a rhythmic flow that, while forceful, carries this challenging music with the majesty it needs. Indeed, there’s something quite stately about the arrangements, due in part to the instrumental breadth and how Dean has paced the voicing (wide intervals and overlapping sections). With a combination of nine very individual personalities (or ten if you count the appearance of trumpeter Jim Dvorak on disc two), it would be easy to imagine Ninesense being blowout-prone. However, contra the Brotherhood’s music (which was often quite ragtag in its sonic appearance), Ninesense isn’t so rough around the edges. The palette and approach, as open as it might seem, are realized with captivating deliberateness – one can imagine a subtle and linear herding of Evans and Malfatti’s garrulous trombones as they duet in “Nicrotto,” joined by swooping brass, arco bass, and reeds. This music revels in elegantly threading an area between control and freedom, and it’s a really fascinating listen.
Following the dissolution of Ninesense later that year, Dean continued to work in small groups, including with fellow ex-Softs bassist Hugh Hopper and in Canterbrury offshoot bands like drummer Pip Pyle’s (Gong, Soft Heap, National Health) l’Equipe Out and guitarist Phil Miller’s (Caravan, Hatfield and the North, National Health) In Cahoots. However, much of Dean’s subsequent work hewed closer to free improvisation, such as recordings with American trombonist Roswell Rudd, pianist Howard Riley, saxophonist Paul Dunmall, and others. The 100 Club Concert 1979 is a fitting and intense tribute to his admittedly somewhat underground legacy.
Psychedelia was a fortuitous intervention in the development of music technology. At the same moment as recording and amplification technologies were exponentially improving fidelity and reducing signal distortion, psychedelic rock was in the process of formalizing distortion as a method of reflecting altered states of consciousness. Guitar distortion had already been a fascination for 1950s R&B artists; think of Chuck Berry’s overdriven valve amp on “Maybelline” or Link Wray’s habit of poking holes in his speaker cones to create his signature tone. This fashion for distortion led to the development of technologies such as the Fuzztone, which paradoxically lend a measure of control to distortion, focusing and directing the stochasticity of dissonance and clipping toward musical ends. This tension between the proliferation of signal distortion and the technological means to control flows of noise is one of the many alternative historical narratives of pop music.
Seen in this way, the history of psychedelic music is no longer a narrative of human genius, the expansion of the mind resulting in the expansion of pop music’s vocabulary, but rather a highly contingent meeting of technologies: psychoactive drug states reorienting attention to the excess of recorded music (i.e. noise, inharmonics, decay, etc.), and technology responding by developing ways to produce signal distortion that can be artfully controlled. Lest we forget: LSD was the accidental invention of a Swiss chemist, and the history of guitar distortion is all about the creative misuse of gear and the use of malfunctioning or modified equipment. In other words, psychedelic music became the accidental laboratory for excess, for pushing music technology beyond its limitations in order to signify the chemically-altered consciousness in which noise, transience, and decay signify as much or more than melodies and lyrics. Someone had to be the first to turn the dial on the reverb unit all the way to “wet,” completely silencing the original signal, leaving only the feedbacked echoes.
In the realm of underground psych, this logic is intensified. Unsigned psych musicians of the first era had no choice but to turn their technological limitations into an alternate set of aesthetic values. The world of vanity-press psych is filled with home producers who pushed consumer-level technologies well beyond their breaking point, not just to evoke hallucinatory perceptual states, but also to cover over weaknesses due to substandard recording and mixing equipment. The rise of “lo-fi” as a pop aesthetic in the mid-1980s (Beat Happening, Tall Dwarfs, etc.) was already old news for rare psych enthusiasts, who had long ago embraced the shortcomings of home recording as a desirable alternative to the slick, soulless commercialism of art rock and new wave. The song “Take Off Your Eyes,” by a trio with the unwieldy name Damin Eih, A.L.K. and Brother Clark, is an excellent example of these strategies at work. The song was included on Never Mind, the first and only album by the Minneapolis group, recorded and released in a tiny private press edition in 1973.
Like the rest of the album, “Take Off Your Eyes” is marked by strange mixing, guitar and bass often cancelling each other out, and the nearly incessant cymbals far too prominent in the mix. The heavy delay on the main guitar part often results in the song seeming strangely out of sync rhythmically. At times, the drums appear to be rushing forward while other elements of the composition fall behind. Though it threatens to become annoying, the persistent ping-pong doubling effect on the vocals is an unorthodox gamble that pays off, evoking the mirroring effects of psychedelics and making other syncing problems seem intentional in context. It helps that the main vocal refrain is a bit of an earworm, and the melody is more than functional, but the appeal of “Take Off Your Eyes” is ultimately its own excess. It signifies too much. It insists on its own absurd lysergic imperative too emphatically, and yet paradoxically, it is this wide-eyed (or dilated-pupil) conviction that sells the lyric’s central conceit: “Take off your eyes/ And heading toward emptiness/ You can see everything suddenly new.”
We live in a brave new world in which the evolution of psychedelic compounds and the development of new audio technologies have become articulated together in ways that are not always apparent, such that it is hard to remember it wasn’t always the case. Terence McKenna claimed that the evolutionary leap from Homo erectus to Homo sapiens was due to the monolith-like influence of psychedelic mushrooms. The specifics of his argument don’t matter as much as his basic conjecture; that the advances of humankind are incomprehensible without a consideration of what was in the water. In this same spirit, we should be willing to consider the history of pop music in terms of a machinic evolution; the ways in which technology, with its own contingencies and trajectories, may often be a decisive factor in the (r)evolution of musical forms. Would techno be what it is today without the commercial failure of the TR-606 and TB-303, two bargain basement synth modules created as electronic accompaniments for jazz musicians? Similarly, the story of psych rock is one shaped by a series of stochastic collisions between emerging technology, psychopharmacology, culture, and the human psyche.
On March 10th, 1970, Alvin Lucier sat in his small rented apartment on High Street in Middletown, Connecticut and read a paragraph into a microphone. “I am sitting in a room, different from the one you are in now,” he began. It was the first step in a process that created the ur-text for understanding lo-fi music.
There’s a tendency to equate low production values with a certain type of intimacy. On it’s face, this is counter-intuitive; that poor sonic fidelity and less clean production create a recording that is more honest and sincere. Early Mountain Goats albums, On an Airplane Over the Sea, and pretty much all of the Corwood Industries catalog trade on this principle. The idea is partially rooted in our understanding of space. By retaining bits of sonic ephemera that were present at the site of recording — the tape hiss of John Darnielle’s boom box, the creak of Jeff Magnum’s chair at the end of “Two-Headed Boy Part 2” — the listener gets a more full and less mediated experience.
These imperfections could easily be scrubbed out in a studio, but keeping them gives the listener access to the site of creative activity. It’s a trick that gives recordings immediacy — it puts you right “there.” The construction is so incredibly pervasive that it’s no wonder we have a genre signifiers like “bedroom pop.” You and the artist share the same aural space, giving the entire recording a patina of intimacy.
After he finished reading the paragraph, Lucier hit rewind and played it back, recording the playback on another tape. He then repeated this process more than 30 times. I am Sitting in a Room is all these recordings collected and stitched together chronologically. With each copy of a copy of a copy Lucier’s original speech gets increasingly warped and distorted, the size and shape of the room emphasizing certain frequencies and absorbing others. After 45 minutes of tape, Lucier’s words are completely incomprehensible. What we’re left with is not his voice, but the sound of the room itself.
What stands out about the piece is how our relationship to Lucier changes in proportion to the prominence of the room’s presence in the recording. At the start, Lucier’s comes through clearly, his soft-spoken enunciation creating a sonic coziness. For the first few repetitions the closeness increases along with the slight distortion. As the clarity degrades and the words begin to blur around the edges. We hear Lucier speaking, as well as where he is speaking. We’re right there with him. However, as I am Sitting continues, the process quickly reveals diminishing returns. Within a few a few more loops, the voice sounds modulated and hollow, like HAL has taken over the reading. Soon, the human lilt of the speech disappears completely and all that’s left are pristine drones and harmonies: all room; no person.
Pull out some graph paper and draw it if you want. You get sort of a distorted bell curve, with peak familiarity somewhere near the beginning before dropping off completely. It’s the line all music working within the lo-fi framework must walk. You want to hint at the realities of the recording — the space, the tape hiss, the crackle of the mic — without drowning out the human aspect with the artifice of it all.
In the introduction to Rip It Up and Start Again: Postpunk 1978-1984, Simon Reynolds writes that, during the post-punk era with which his book is concerned, he never bought older records. Reynolds posits two reasons for this phenomenon: to begin with, today’s pervasive reissue culture did not yet exist but, more importantly, the overwhelming fertility of the then contemporary musical climate left no time to turn toward a nostalgic past anyway.
Liberated from the commodified leisure culture of the 70s mainstream rock spectacle, post-punk musicians sculpted their own vernacular, free from punk’s rockist foundation, upon the scorched earth landscape with which they had been left. They applied punk’s transgressive ideals to itself, synthesizing its minimal, neanderthal approach with supposed antagonists disco, prog, and electronic music to effect both a formal and aesthetic break from punk’s already cloistered structural misanthropy – and it is this further break from tradition, coupled with post-punk’s proletarian accessibility that lent itself to such a rich proliferation of recorded material from the period.
Ant Trip Ceremony hardly draw from the same ideological well, but perhaps share deeper impulsive groundwater. Recorded on a low budget in early 1968 by students in Oberlin, Ohio and originally released in a run of only 300 copies, the band’s only album 24 Hours remains very of its time, typifying the zeitgeist of a late 1960s America abundant with the music of an inspired generation. The presence of a “Hey Joe” cover and the album’s current status as a reissue beg for it to be interpreted through the lens of Lenny Kaye’s influential 1972 compilation of proto-punk, Nuggets, and 24 Hours fits predictably into that mold. The band’s version of the standard lies somewhere between The Leaves’ frenetic original and Jimi Hendrix’s laid-back, downtempo interpretation with the album’s 11 other tracks accordingly straddling the line between raucous garage rock and gauzy psychedelia.
Yet unlike typical 60s tracklistings, where a hit single becomes the title of a band’s record and its first track, 24 Hours remarkably resists front-loading to the point that I almost wanted to abandon ship on first listen. Though Ant Trip Ceremony are also clearly at fault, it is these introductory tracks that suffer from the album’s rough production. Opening crooner “Locomotive Lamp,” which in another world might burst out of floodgates with the bombastic pomp of Scott Walker, here limps from the silent void, weary with dispassion. Along with its three successors, the song is barely saved by mildly interesting, spindly guitar work, and half-hearted lyrical banalities like “eternally free to love” and “bridges in my mind” do little to prevent me from being reminded of Spinal Tap’s satirical hippie pastiche “Listen to the Flower People.”
Fortunately, “Hey Joe” is a breath of fresh air that manages, through its sonic oscillations, to express both the blind passion of a man who shoots his lover after being cuckolded and the melancholic aimlessness of consequent self-exile where most versions settle for just one. And the remainder of the album builds off of its energy. “Outskirts,” with its tastefully applied vocal tremolo, could be the story of Joe’s southbound journey: “Going down the river/ Going down the track/ Don’t know where I’m going but I know I’m going back.” Side two mostly atones for the shortcomings of its obverse, utilizing the no-frills production to its proper advantage on tracks like pithy rocker “Get Out Of My Life.” The specter of “Hey Joe” continues to exert its vibrant influence via the successful appropriation and slackening of its chord progression on “Four In The Morning;” and the band is at their most compelling on such instances where they let things stretch out and take on a life of their own, exemplified by “Pale Shades of Gray” and the instrumental flute-adorned pseudo-raga “Elaborations.”
While 24 Hours fits in with the better Original Artyfacts from the First Psychedelic Era, it also doesn’t particularly stand out. So why reissue the album? There already exists a 1995 repress, and this new edition surely can’t have been motivated by a demand for a 180 gram issue of such an obscurity. I originally intended to use this review to present the 2010 Vinyl Lovers version of 24 Hours as a separate entity from its 1968 predecessor: a Borgesian re-contextualization forward in time that would illuminate the deficiencies of garage rock’s current crop of lazy anachronistic imitators, decrying the shoddiness of their misplaced troglodyte nostalgia, etc., etc. But such a rash generalization would be both defeatist and a hasty simplification of reality. The truth is that I continue to discover older music I love, whether it be from 1968, 1981, or 2010.
Contemporary labels like Spectrum Spools rescue albums from both historical obscurity and the ephemerality of recent limited cassette pressings. So, if Simon Reynolds’ statement regarding the post-punk era is to be applied to today’s glut of reissues, maybe its emphasis should be placed on the erstwhile absence of such a reissue culture rather than on a cultural inadequacy inherent in our current digital age. Today’s music curators are faced with access to a near-totality of recorded material, both past and present, and the act of presenting a recording or collection of recordings as a relevant, coherent album is a way of making sense of it all, of separating the wheat from the chaff. Reissues have brought about a folding of music history in on itself, a canon in flux, and an archaeological intertextuality facilitated by the information age. Formerly lost in the ether of 60s garage rock, it is because of this recent reissue that the existence of Ant Trip Ceremony came to my attention. 24 Hours might not be the best example of its type, but I’m glad to have heard it.
Murder ballads generally adhere to a strict formula it seems. They explain who the person being murdered is, why they got murdered, and finally how the killer is brought to justice. The most essential part though (other than, y’know… the murder) has got to be the motive, and that is precisely why “Knoxville Girl” is so fucking unsettling. It begins like a love song, with the narrator picking up his sweetheart to go for a stroll, and only a few lines in she’s screaming as he beats her to death with a stick. He doesn’t have any motivation, and our only insight into how he felt about her comes at the end as he wastes away in prison when he says he loved her. It never gets too gory, but a line like “She never spoke another word, I only beat her more, until the ground around me within her blood did flow,” sounds deeply disturbing when sung in the melancholy tone the song is famous for.
Pick any version you like, damn thing is nearly 100 years old so there are quite a lot to choose from. A lot of people go for the Nick Cave version, but for me nothing beats The Louvin Brothers version. These two brothers, Ira and Charlie Loudermilk, sing it so well because they depict the murderer in possibly the most unhinged way. They do that by singing it as a sad love song. If you heard their version and didn’t pay attention to any lyrics, it would sound like a broken-hearted ballad for the one that got away. They have the narrator reminisce the beating of a young girl to death, then dragging her bloody corpse by the hair and tossing it into the river as a sad memory of lost love. “Knoxville Girl” is the murder ballad at its absolute best, and this is the definitive version.